Large research studies have reported no increased risk of breast cancer in women who used deodorant, including among those who use deodorant immediately after shaving. The myth that deodorant causes breast cancer originated from an email hoax that claimed that deodorants/antiperspirants prevent the body from sweating out toxins. These emails suggested that these toxins were then absorbed by lymph glands and lead to breast cancer. They also suggested that the risk is higher when deodorants/antiperspirants are used directly after shaving, as shaving allows cancer-causing agents to be absorbed through razor cuts. Research shows, however, that breast cancers start in the breast and later spread to lymph glands. Additionally, toxins are not released from the body via sweating, but are largely excreted by the liver and kidneys, a different bodily system to the lymph glands. Hence, the method proposed to increase risk is not valid.